Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Guest Blog: Internet of Everything – It’s all about the Ecosystem

By Ed Featherston | December 18, 2014

It seems you can’t have a technology discussion today before the phrase “Internet of Things” (IoT), or better yet, “Internet of Everything” shows up. This makes sense, as according to the latest Gartner hype cycle report on emerging technologies places “Internet of Things” at the peak of the hype cycle, ousting big data from the top spot, which is now hurtling down into the trough of disillusionment (love those hype cycle names).

IoT is so pervasive that I even had a conversation with my cardiologist this week about the topic. I was in for the annual 10,000 mile checkup of my pacemaker. I mentioned to him that at the recent MassTLC Innovation UnConference, the topic of devices like the pacemaker were a hot topic of the day (see my blog MassTLC Innovation UnConference 2014- Views from an UnConference Neophyte). This triggered a great discussion with my doctor. Many of the points he made I found very applicable to the technology as a whole and provided great insight into the world of “Internet of Everything” from the viewpoint of a key consumer of that technology in the health care industry.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Guest Blog: Five Tips to Help Companies Protect Themselves from Data Breaches

By Steve Bychowski of Foley Hoag

With every swipe of a credit card this holiday season, consumers put their faith in the companies that process and store their information.  Yet, it is no secret that data breaches are on the rise, hitting companies large and small.  Massive data breaches recently struck Target and Home Depot, to just name a few, and these two breaches alone affected hundreds of millions of consumers and cost the companies hundreds of millions of dollars.  Sony Pictures is still reeling from a data breach this month that exposed the private information of thousands of Sony employees.  With the New Year almost upon us, now is a good time for companies to take stock of their data security practices to ensure that they start 2015 on the right foot.  Not only is data breach prevention good business, it is also required by many state, federal, and international laws.  Here are five tips for companies to safeguard their sensitive data. 

  1. Conduct a comprehensive risk assessment.  You can’t protect the unknown.  The first step to effective data breach prevention is understanding what types of data the company stores, where it is, what is being done to protect it, and what are the risks if the data is stolen.
  2. Keep only what you need.  Hackers can’t steal what you don’t have.  Take stock of what information the company has and weigh the benefit of keeping the data against the risk of theft.  The company should have a good reason for keeping sensitive information.
  3. Create a written data security policy.  Document the company’s data security procedures and requirements.  This will help confirm that everyone is on the same page and employees are aware of their roles and responsibilities.  Such policies help protect the company in the event of a breach and are required by most state and federal data security laws.
  4. Plan for the inevitable with a detailed breach response plan.  When a data breach occurs, time is of the essence.  The company must quickly act to contain the breach, investigate its cause, and mitigate the damage.  At the same time, state and federal laws require prompt notification to those affected.  A comprehensive breach response plan will allow the company to act accordingly.  A key component of breach response preparedness is having agreements already in place with both legal counsel and a vendor to handle breach diagnostics, correction, and notification.
  5. Hold vendors to the same standards.  Data storage vendors, such as cloud service providers, offer a cost effective alternative to handling everything in-house.  The company must trust that the vendor will properly secure the data.  Vendor contracts should clearly set forth the vendor’s security procedures and each party’s obligations.  Data breach insurance is one way companies can manage the risk involved with vendors.  

While implementing these steps takes time and resources in the short term, they can help safeguard the health of your company for years to come. 

 post can be found here.

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

MassTLC Members Recognized as 'Top Places to Work' by the Boston Globe

Congratulations to the MassTLC members selected as Top Places to Work in the most recent Boston Globe survey!  Numerous MassTLC members appeared among the ranks of the state’s best employers. 
Workers at these companies completed confidential surveys in which they rated their companies on:
  • Direction
  • Execution
  • Connection
  • Management
  • Work
  • Pay and Benefits
  • Engagement

The companies that completed the survey process were separated into four size categories based on number of employees:  small (50-99), medium (100-249), large (250-999) and largest (>1000).  MassTLC member companies were represented in each category. 

The member companies and their rank within each size group are listed below:

3.    RunKeeper
17.  iZotope

10.  NetProspex
32.  Bit9
37.  Fiksu

9.    HubSpot
25.  NaviNet

1.   Kronos
6.   athenahealth
11. EMC
21. Comcast

MassTLC is proud to be part of such a strong community of employers and employees!

Thursday, November 20, 2014

unCon 2014 Recap: Views from an UnConference Neophyte

Last Friday, I had the opportunity to attend the Mass Technology Leadership Council’s Innovation 2014 UnConference in Boston. I will start by saying I am an UnConference neophyte.  I fully admit I had no idea what such a beast the event was prior to attending; I did not even know what was involved. However, it turned out to be an amazing day of sharing knowledge, thoughts, and ideas with other technologists from around the area in a way that was engaging, interesting, and honestly more fun than any other conference I have attended prior.

Photo Credit: MassTLC

First, the logistics: how does one create an agenda for an UnConference?

The first unique aspect of the event I noticed was the lack of an agenda prior to arriving. All that was known were time frames for sessions and what rooms would be used, but there was no content defined. The only session with a defined agenda was the first one, aptly titled ‘Agenda Setting Session’. The room was full of attendees’ grouped in a circle. In the middle of the room there were two microphones and at the back, there were large poster boards with rooms and timeslots. People lined up from two directions at the microphones, each with a colored piece of paper in hand, and would propose a topic they would like to see discussed. The moderator then asked probing questions gauging attendees’ reaction to determine if this would be a popular topic of discussion. The person would then be sent to one of the coordinators to determine a time slot and room for that discussion. The piece of paper with the topic would be pinned to the appropriate location on the poster boards in the back. Multiple people were sitting on the floor in front of the poster boards with laptops, furiously entering the information as it was posted. Within moments, the agenda app on my phone (provided by the event coordinators) was quickly filling up with content.

Now mind you, this was happening at breakneck speed. The moderator reminded me at times of a barker at a carnival, talking quickly, getting consensus on a topic, and immediately moving on to the next person in line, alternating between the microphones. Within 45 minutes, my agenda app was full of topics for the days’ sessions with times and locations. I noticed in the next time slot that there was a session on ‘The Internet of Things – old and new’, which sounded like it might be interesting, so I headed to the room specified for the topic.

Just jump right in, feet first

On arriving at the specified ‘IoT’ room, I was impressed to notice that outside each meeting room was a small tablet device hanging on the wall proudly announcing it was powered by Roomzilla and displaying both the time, room number, and topic currently scheduled in that room – which I assume was courtesy of those people sitting on the floor with their laptops previously mentioned entering the data on the poster boards. In the room, there was the individual who had proposed the topic, Dr. Sheldon Borkin from StrategicAngles. The room quickly filled up and we started to attempt to do introductions, but the number of folks filing in made that problematic. Dr. Borkin explained the process: he would moderate the discussion, but that this was our session to talk openly on the topic; we, as a group, could drill down any additional areas we wanted to discuss. Dr. Borkin asked me if I would take notes and email them to the organizers-. I agreed as I planned on taking notes for myself anyway.

We then started on a very interesting and spirited discussion on the Internet of Things, covering a variety of topics, including such items as:
  • How do we setup the plumbing to facilitate all these devices?
  • How do we deal with security of the data?
  • Who owns the data? (very spirited discussion around this topic)
  • What do we do with the data? (analytics became a big discussion, which fed naturally into the next session scheduled for that room on data gathering and analytics)
  • How do we deal with product life cycle that might be measured in years?

The discussion topics were thought provoking, especially with regard to the last item. Bob Frankston raised the point in the context of medical devices, specifically implanted devices. This topic was near and dear to my heart, literally, as I had a pacemaker put in close to 10 years ago. In today’s fast pace world of technological changes, we easily forget there are some devices/technologies that must have a longer life span, a prime example being implanted medical devices. The software and the equipment that communicates with that device in my chest has to last more than a year or two, as constant surgery to implant the latest and greatest device is not a viable option. Planning for that and understanding the implications is critical in this particular area of the Internet of Things.

Brainstorming, crowd-sourcing ideas, and the feel of a tweetchat

The remaining sessions I attended throughout the day were just as energetic and enjoyable as the first. Being in a room and brainstorming with such amazing, diverse, technologically savvy talent from across a wide spectrum set this ‘UnConference’ apart. As much as I hate using the latest buzzwords, this really was ‘crowd-sourcing’ ideas and felt like a face to face version of a tweetchat (I have participated in many over the years). At the end of the day, all attendees went back to the same room the sessions were defined in. The hosts/moderators of the sessions reported back what the sessions were like and this recap was great because there were many sessions I was interested in that I could not attend.

Another upside to this ‘UnConference’ format was the large number of new people working in the technology space that I was able to connect and share ideas with. Overall, it was a great experience, great discussion and brainstorming of ideas and developing new contacts in the technology landscape of Massachusetts was invaluable. I look forward to next year, and will maybe even get up in line and propose my own topics/sessions!

Friday, November 14, 2014

unCon 2014 Session: Innovation in Boring Industries

Post by Adam Zand, principal at Almost Ubiquitous

This session was led by Ken Pickering, senior director of engineering at Enservio.

We first defined boring. It can be an “unsexy” or utilitarian industry that is underserved by the tech market. For example, insurance is slow to adopt. Technical solutions are slow to buy. The financial industry 20 years ago was harder to innovate. Banking, in general, is slow - still often done on mainframes. Recruitment was pretty standard, but now there is recruitment software. Security used to be boring - Threats made it exciting.

There is an opportunity and excitement to working in these industries. If there are fewer companies doing interesting things, it is easier to stand out and be a leader and have your innovations be adopted by industry.

How do you bring innovation to a company that already has revenue stream?
Extra growth is appreciated if the market is saturated. The challenge with boring industries is that people in them are risk averse. Newness means risk so need to find the champions. Advent of Internet-based companies can be a kick in the pants in markets like insurance. You see funny commercials for branding purposes - these companies understand that younger audiences need to be introduced to the offerings in interesting ways.

What other industries are ripe for this innovation?
We want to serve underserved areas. Boring industries can change quickly. Facebook was a status and photo app. Marketing ecosystem grew up around it. Now, there’s facial recognition opportunities.

All industries see a technology come in that makes changes. For example, PowerPoint was big within education, but is now common. Other industries built tools to support it. Practice of teaching became more interesting. Now, we have classes online anywhere, anytime.
Industry is changed by a technology that may not have been intended for it.

Incremental vs. disruption.
Most big business deals with incremental but it is very significant. There is great value in the volume. It may not be sexy for VC, but this is the foundation of our economy.

The session looked at how do you innovate -- balance incremental and disruptive. Helps to have a group that will support the disruptive ideas, sponsor, champion, and move forward if it makes sense.

A participant from Constant Contact shared that email marketing was looked at as spam, but an opportunity was convincing people who wanted to communicate in useful, welcomed ways. Needed to develop customer relationship and connections. Educate and shift the dialog. Technology pushed it along. At Constant Contact, some customers might be caught in the tradition of a three column newsletter that doesn’t work on mobile. Need to explain the changes and give them samples.

A participant from Trip Advisor shared: Hotels are not tech giants or often connected to the ecosystem. Lots don’t connect to online booking. Friction exists with potential clients. At TripAdvisor, they try to ballpark what people could get from an innovation or new approach. They share what competitors are doing. Some hotels will say our budget is done - they aleady bought an ad in a trade or business publication, but can’t show what the benefits were though.

Motivation for innovation often comes from:
  • Fear from outside
  • Demands of consumers

We discussed innovation as an in-house, incentivized program. A participant who once worked at  Warner Brothers shared there was an incentive program around DC Comics. They had a effort where anyone could pitch an idea. If your idea wins you get a huge TV. 75 people were competing to improve a process. Internal competition gets people excited. Can look at all the programs.

At Microsoft, you have a set amount of time to do whatever you want. Not part of your daily work. Lots of problems gets solved at those times.

This supports incentives with internal competition. One company shared that there is a pitch to VPs once a quarter. Facetime with VPs is important to many employees, however you might miss out on the introverts. Another person shared, this would spice up an innovation team that tends to meet monthly and can get stale.

Someone from Mitre shared that innovation is part of the defined research budget. Anyone can submit a proposal. There is a six month project that can be measured and continued if necessary. Eventually, needs to show successes. Homegrown innovation gets people excited. More buy in.

Are there people in your companies looking out for innovations, trends?
Need to ask: Is there a technology out there that will change our industry. Where is market going? What do customers want?

This discussion showed innovation is alive and well in seemingly “boring” industries. 

unCon 2014 Session: Branding in the Age of Fast Failure

Post by: Chris Nahil, Message & Medium,  Twitter: @cnahil

Iconic images though they may be, Nike’s “swoosh” and Apple’s “iEverything” are not the sum total of their respective brands. They are the expression of particular qualities and attributes, the combined power of which make up a brand. The authentic brand of any company is comprised of many factors from product strategy and customer service to Web copy tone and product packaging…and almost everything in between that can create an emotional connection with a customer or prospect. In an era when companies routinely pivot -- or fail fast – is branding still viable?  The answer in this session is “yes” and several of the digital marketing tools currently available make brand evolution less painful, more data-driven and more cost-efficient.  Some highlights from this unConference session, moderate by Meghan Gardner of Leap, included:
  • Customers today expect similar things from their interactions with B2B companies as they do with B2C brands. Today, even deep technology companies must have the kind of engagement and open approach to communications that most consumer brands have mastered.
  • The discipline need to define differentiated messaging still revolves around the central questions:
    • Who are we?
    • What do we do?
    • Why do we do it better than anyone else?
    • Why should anyone else care?
  • Every company has a community with which it can test messaging and positioning. Digital tools – surveys, LinkedIn company pages, email marketing, online forums, social media platforms, mobile – allow companies to quickly vet messaging and gather quantitative data on message effectiveness.
  • Brand is two-way conversation. If your company must pivot, having established a genuine rapport with your audience in advance is the best way to ease that transition.
  • Similarly, if a company has not bothered to engage its audience then it will wind up “branding in a vacuum” which is ineffective and expensive.

unCon 2014 Session: Bringing Code Literacy to Inner City Youth

Post by Adam Zand, principal at Almost Ubiquitous

This important session was led by Micah Martin, an 18 year-old Boston resident who codes and is active with Resilient Coders, a program focused on making web technology more available to kids who might not otherwise be exposed to it. He was joined by Tyler Mitchell and Fredy Meto, peers at Resilient Coders. Heather Carey, executive director of Mass TLC’s Education Foundation joined the session and there was active participation from the large audience.

The Need - A Personal Story
Micah set the stage with issues faced and the need for access and positive social change.
“Many people start using computers and coding as self-taught and then curiosity takes over. In my environment, the distractions take over and there are too many other temptations or even stigmas about education. We are being left in the dark too much. The inner city itself makes learning hard. Finding out about coding is hard. There are no formal classes in schools.”

His story is compelling and instructive as we look at helping kids break out from institutional and self-imposed boundaries, “At 15, I was in and out of foster homes, DYS. I tried to remain humble, but knew I was intelligent. Never used it. I didn’t see how that would make me money. I was tired of institutions. Change happened, when I changed how I looked at myself and the paradigm.”

Heather Carey shared a higher level look at tenets to guide us: Awareness, Exposure, Educate, Master, Thirsty learners. She talked about the importance of reaching kids beyond the sons and daughters of techies. She asked what can we do better as a tech community to reach a larger amount of students in urban areas?

Resources and Reaching Out
We started looking at groups and institutions. Chris Swenor from VSnap shared an economic benefit of working with inner city coders. He thought it would it be cheaper to have an inner city agency to improve. Less need to outsource. He wants to hire and work with passionate, skilled people.

Heather mentioned South End Technology Center as resource. Resilient Coders is connecting to other nonprofits, but it’s hard to get a plan down and coordinate. There is not really a place to work together. This isn’t systematic or organized. She is working to increase connections and collaboration through her work at the Education Foundation and mentioned monthly meet-ups they have started to host.

Heather asked Micah, how do we reach your friends?
Micah shared, “the main issue is development and maturity. We are told to have a negative self image - change the paradigm of an inner city kid who wants to improve and get opportunity. My friends are genuine and would get motivated by personal satisfaction and success. Overcoming something hard like coding helps you learn and grow. There’s a lot of failure in coding.”

Dan Bricklin, trustee at MassTLC added: “Failure is important. Success happens when you make something work. The coming together and the process of next steps is positive. Feedback from peers and the little steps will keep us going. Better to look at that before thinking about success in the app store. The steps along the way of coding is a type of life. How do you get that part - a drug so to speak - accepted as fun and build passion that gets people hired.”

Another participant shared that interaction with the physical world interests people. Having a maker space would help and robots in the schools to work with as ongoing activities.

We started a list of elements that could help:
  • Maker space
  • Awareness
  • In school access
  • After-school access
  • Resources (books, classes)
  • Mentors, volunteers from companies
  • Retreats, safe spaces
  • Site visits to companies
  • Internships for high school students at tech companies

The audience asked Micha if places like the South End Technology Center and lab at Madison Park HS are helpful to people?

Micha said maker centers and labs are interesting. However, every neighborhood and actual street has gang issues, history and potential conflict. A maker space or community center could turn sour.

Heather talked about work with schools being tough and the need for money and resources.
Micha shared, “In 9th grade, I was at Boston Latin. I learned so much quickly and was given O’Reilly coding books. I was expelled early. When I went back to normal school, I didn’t have any access to books or a facility.”

Heather mentioned CoderDojo, an online open source curriculum for kids. A Nokia employee is doing it in Somerville. After-school is a possibility and company involvement as a shared effort.

Dan Bricklin wondered if there was a virtual solution to access to knowledge and resources. Dan lives on Skype screen sharing. He asked if we should we provide mentors on Skype? People available to answer questions. “We have tons of O’Reilly books that we no longer need and could gift. How does one do the mentoring and connecting on Skype - how would you figure out who would be a good fit?”

Micah liked the idea, but need to have the kids realize that this is possible, ignite the passion. “I had it with game programming around 13 and 14. There is a technology gap in inner city. If you have Facebook and YouTube, many will think that is enough.” Micah shares his smart phone for access. Micha sees the potential and education of Internet. He stopped going to school at 16, but taught himself and got to go to college. “Coding can be cool in my peer group. My friends really like the idea of me doing it and making money.”

Micah shared that an off-site retreat would be cool, but that gangs will still be an issue. People need to change how they look at themselves. Eventually people grow out of it and realize they were being manipulated or put into risk for no personal benefit.

Fredy Meto, a peer at Resilient Coders shared that one of the things that attracted him were large groups of different people being involved - former DYS, gang members and prisoners. A problem with a Maker Space is you might have 5-7 people trying to teach 500 people. Lack of quality. If given the resources, he’d hire or involve as many mentors as could in order to go to DYS, prisons to teach.  

Some companies do mentoring and school visits as one day to help. Corporations need to be asked and connected. However, it really needs to be an ongoing organized effort - not just one offs.

Programming in Schools and Pressure on Government
Massachusetts State Senator Karen Spilka has filed legislation to help. She filed a coding in schools bill. There is an economic development bill that contains $1M for coding in school. Schools are being selected by MassCan (Massachusetts Computing Attainment Network). The Senator wants to build on that effort and shared that it helped her understand the issues by meeting with Resilient Coders.

She said, “The challenge is - we will never be enough, but more voices will get this from pilot program to curriculum. We need this as a country. In the short-term, people continue to mentor, contact Council and similar organization, get out there, look at overcoming the barriers as a pilot group. At same time, join forces and reach out to State Senator Spilka’s office and MassTLC Education Foundation. More voices mean it gets heard - stand out from the 8000 other bills that get filed annually. This is important to business, community.”

Heather said the Education Foundation is recruiting CXO signatures to show policy makers how important they feel computer science education in our schools is for the future of our kids.

Galen Moore, editor in chief at BostInno asked if coding is the best direction and use of resources: “Should we look at digital marketing, SEO, digital strategy?” Dan Bricklin answered, that “marketing is selling something. Coding is teaching what needs are and solving problems. That moves into wider entrepreneurship and life skills. Establish need and determine what will solve it.”

One idea was to adopt a “Start-up Institute” model with benefits to companies. If you mentor, you get access to potential employees. We can also have corporate coding or similar business projects that can be tackled short-term in a school.

Next Steps
In our wrap up, Heather asked if we should we all commit to doing something?
Micah asked us for the goals, and what an ideal program and collaboration would look like. What are the roadblocks?

There is a need for high level social change, but it is critical to have support at the grassroots with a combination of nonprofits, companies, educators and mentors.

Senator Spilka said, make sure Boston schools reach out to  MassCan funding so they can be part of next round. Heather can help make that connection.

Can we get lots of these people together? Tech companies opening up doors to high school students for internships.

Micah asked is there a group that can connect these parties?
David Delmar, founder of Resilient Coders and Heather are having meetings about this. Meet ups will be open.

Sign up for MassTLC’s #RandomActsOfCode, December 8-12. Build the connections. Meet up and continue these discussions. Get involved with Resilient Coders and reach out to communities in need.

Micah left us with the challenge: “Do something.” People need to link together to bring coding to inner city youth.

unCon 2014 Session: How to give a TED talk

By: Jiyoung Jeong

Led by UMass Amherst TEDx Group

During the second session, representatives from UMass Amherst’s TEDx group pitched a short lecture on how to give TED talks. They covered the main fundamentals of speechmaking: the importance of physical stance and position, visual presentation, and content.

Whenever one gives a talk in front of a big audience, it’s crucial to stand in a confident position. One of the representatives stressed the importance by noting that statistically, “people who [stand in] bigger positions” give more successful, effective talks. “[Standing in a more assured position] makes you more confident,” she said, stating that carrying an unruffled stance causes one’s body to produce hormones that makes him or her more confident.

The representatives also emphasized the significance of visual assistance in presentations. They mentioned that many use PowerPoint to summarize main points, while stressing that a slide shouldn’t contain long paragraphs that distract the audience from the talk itself. The worst that can happen while giving a talk, a representative said, is having so much information on a slide that “it becomes almost annoying.” “You do not want to put a presentation up and read the slides word for word,” she said.

Lastly, they discussed the significance of content. A talk becomes “more endearing,” a representative mentioned, “when they’re speaking in a relatable way.” He went on to say that a talk’s topic could be simple; he recalled the time he watched an effective TED talk on a topic as mundane as paper towels.

Although the UMass Amherst TEDx group did not discuss the process of making TED talks in depth, its members discussed the most basic skills needed for speechmaking—offering helpful advice to all aspiring speechmakers at the session. 

unCon 2014 Session: Is Attending College Worthwhile?

By: Jiyoung Jeong

Led by Sterling Dintersmith

As one of the few high school students at the Innovation unConference today, Sterling raised an important—yet rarely asked—question: “Is attending college worthwhile?”

At her session, she noted that many students, at first enthused to experience college, actually find their college academic life uninteresting. When she asked the group’s opinion on that issue, many responded that a college’s challenging classroom environment, nonetheless, teach students “how to think critically.” They went on to highlight the value of critical thinking; one participant mentioned that she, like many others, largely consider an applicant’s critical thinking abilities when hiring.

Many session members also pointed out the importance of network that colleges allow students to create. All of them agreed that connecting with others in such a “unique place” has allowed them to nurture various relationships both during and after college; one participant noted that college acts as a “cultural reference point.” He further noted that most people ask others what college they attended not to gain a sense of their intelligence, but to network; for example, long after graduating from college, a woman who graduated in 1994 may unexpectedly meet another who graduated in 2003— and they may get to make other acquaintances through each other. He pointed out that, in a society where work and opportunities chiefly rely on connections, the ultimate value of attending college—although extremely pricey— is excitingly unpredictable.

But should all students attend college right after graduating from high school? Most of the session group members brought up the option of gap year. “Find the path [you want to take in life] before paying that money [for college],” one of them advised. Many agreed, saying that having a clear goal in mind before attending college is crucial. These days, many students opt for college without knowing what they would like to do career-wise. With the huge growth in college attendees, many high school students are pressured to attend college “just because.” Although one member mentioned that attending college actually helped him define some significant life goals, the general consensus was: people that have clear goals, dedication, and focus are the ones that can get the most out of those expensive institutions. 

The session also touched on the importance of finding the “right school.” Participants stressed that, for a student, colleges’ names shouldn’t stand as the main problem; instead, the questions that they should ask are, does the school fit me? Can I fully apply myself in various areas at this institution?  A participant encouraged having flexibility during both the application process and the actual school life. “You’re [never] stuck,” he said; no matter what college one starts at, he or she always has the choice to drop out or transfer, if the college experience isn’t quite rewarding.
Toward the end of the discussion, Sterling asked the group members to raise their hands if they felt that they had gained crucial academic skills by attending college. Surprisingly, although nearly all of them had spoken positively of attending college, only about forty percent of the group raised their hands. Truly, the most significant value and reason for attending college may not root in the classroom material—but in the diverse relationships that college environments nurture.